BAG at Diamond Light Source

Block Allocation Group (BAG) Programme Mode Application to Diamond Light Source:

The BAG explained

The UK Catalysis Hub BAG aims to provide members of the Hub network and all groups doing catalytic science in the UK with frequent and flexible access to B18, sending out two calls for proposals per cycle. One advantage of sending out two calls for proposals per cycle, is that our users can obtain beamtime on a rapid turnaround, which has been especially useful when additional measurements are required on a short timescale to finish pieces of work for publication.

The dates of calls for proposals are set by Diamond light source and will be sent to the Mailing list, to sign up for the mailing list here.

We are committed to increasing the user base of XAFS in the catalyst community, and so in part the BAG works as a training scheme. The team at Harwell guides new users through the proposal and experimental stages, showing them the potential of XAFS for their projects and training them on the analysis of their data. We ask all PIs to name on their proposal a member of their group who will be responsible for the beamtime measurements and who will learn how to analyse the data.

Current  Forms for proposal

2018 Insitu Proposal Form


2018 EX Situ Proposal Form

UVXAF Sstop flow cell


We operate by sending out two calls for proposals per cycle, which are assessed by a panel comprising representation from Diamond, Hub scientists, and representatives from two other institutions (changed on a rolling basis). The latter positions are filled by researchers in catalysis one of whom usually has XAFS experience. The BAG allocation prioritises access based on:

  • scientific excellence,
  • feasibility,
  • attracting new users and new areas of catalytic science, and
  • maximising efficiency.

Both in situ /operando studies and standard ex situ (rapid access and proof of concept) measurements are facilitated, with generally an even mix of the two proposal types being awarded time. Due to our aim of attracting new and inexperienced users to XAFS, proposals are not often accepted ‘as is’ but redesigned to make the best use of time and provide the user with the measurements they need. In this way, we plan the BAG shifts to facilitate the greatest number of projects efficiently. No single user is awarded more than 3 shifts in any one call and we limit experienced users of XAFS to short bursts of time: in this way the BAG should not serve as an ‘easy’ access to B18 for those who should apply through the Direct Access Route.

It is important to note that that for heavy users of synchrotron facilities this method of access will only play a small contribution to the amount of time they require. Their role within the BAG proposal is to provide the interface between the inexperienced members and Diamond, enabling a larger cross section of the UK Catalysis Hub network to benefit from the techniques available. These users may receive small amounts of flexible access, where required, to assist in finishing research projects and hasten subsequent publications.

I have been awarded time in the BAG, what now?
Before the experiment

Session investigators

Once you are notified that your proposal has been awarded time on the BAG, please make sure that you let the BAG coordinator know who on you team will be attending the experiment. All those planning to come to Diamond must be registered in UAS ( and must have watched the health and safety video and completed the test (

Experimental Risk Assessment

The Principal Investigator or Alternate Contacts need to submit the ERA (Experimental Risk Assessment) in UAS. All the samples and any equipment that will be brought to Diamond must be specified in the ERA. If it is necessary to bring your own sample environments please discuss this in advance with the BAG coordinator. The ERA template can be found using this link – BAG Risk Assessment.

Travel, subsistence and accommodation

If your scheduled experiment requires overnight accommodation on-site, the BAG coordinator will organise that for you and will let you know the details. However, you will have to organise your own travel arrangements. Please note that Diamond will only cover the subsistence for the Core Team, so you will have to pay for your meals and claim the money back.

Please note that only one person will be funded per ex situ proposal and two per in situ proposal.

To find details about how to travel to Diamond, please visit:

Sample Shipment

Sometimes it is simpler to ship your samples to us. Samples being shipped should be address to:

BAG coordinator
UK Catalysis Hub, Research Complex at Harwell
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,
Oxfordshire, OX11 0FA


During the experiment

When you arrive at Diamond you will be given an access card. This is usually at the main security gate to site. The card will be pre-loaded with the appropriate access for your session. If there are difficulties with your card please contact the user office (ext. 8571). Please wear your access card at all times and return the card, along with the lanyard at the end of your session.

Once on the beamline, please follow the instructions given by the BAG coordinator and or local contacts in charge of the experiment. The way the BAG works, it is difficult to follow the scheduled timetable. Please be patient if your experiment is delayed from the initial estimated time.


After your experiment
Experimental Report

All proposals require a report once the session scheduled in that proposal are complete.

In all cases this report should include any changes in methodology that were required and highlight key results as well as indicate the status of the project(s) in light of these results. Experiment Reports are made available to the Peer Review Panel when they are considering further proposals from the same Principal Investigator and failure to submit a report can be considered detrimental for future access.

You can find the report template using this link – BAG Report Template


Users publishing work containing synchrotron data from Diamond Light Source should ensure they acknowledge Diamond in all publications (including conference proceedings) arising from work carried out wholly or partially at Diamond. The following acknowledgement statement must be included in all published reports:

The authors wish to acknowledge the Diamond Light Source for provision of beamtime (proposal number).”

Please also inform the BAG coordinator of all Publications arising from the BAG.


Track record

Through SP8071, SP10306 and SP15151; 75 days (excluding reassigned days) have been received. Since the first beamtime allocation period, 56 articles have been published; the growth is shown in Figure 1. This is an average of 1.5 days beamtime per paper. We note that it takes approximately 6 months for the first papers from each allocation to be published.

BAG publications track record diagram

Fig. 1 Number of papers published from the UK Catalysis Hub BAG access to B18 since Dec 2013.


The publications in bold are those from the last 6 months.

1. M.J. Lawrence, V. Celorrio, X. Shi, Q. Wang, A. Yanson, N.J.E. Adkins, M. Gu, J. Rodríguez-López, P. Rodriguez. Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Metal-doped Titanates and Investigation of Their Activity as Oxygen Evolution Photoanodes. Aceptted in ACS Applied Energy Materials.

2. E. Nowicka , C. Reece , S.M. Althahban , K. M.H. Mohammed , S.A. Kondrat , D.J. Morgan, Q. He , D.J. Willock , S. Golunski , C.J. Kiely , G.J. Hutchings. Elucidating the role of CO2 in the soft oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over ceria-based catalysts. Acs Catalysis 2018, 8 (4), pp 3454–3468

3. J. Callison , N. D. Subramanian , S. M. Rogers , A. Chutia , D. Gianolio , C. R. A. Catlow , P.P. Wells , N. Dimitratos. Directed aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol through tailored platinum nanoparticles. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 238, 618 – 628

4. X. Fan, R. Vakili, E. Gibson, S. Chansai, S. Xu, P. Wells, C. Hardacre, A. Walton, N. Aljanabi. Understanding the CO oxidation on Pt nanoparticles supported on MOFs by operando XPS. ChemCatChem (2018), DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201801067

5. G. Malta , S.A. Kondrat , S.J. Freakley , C. Davies , S. Dawson , X. Liu , L. Lu , K.
Dymkowski, F. Fernandez-Alonso, S. Mukhopadhyay, E.K. Gibson, P.P. Wells, S.F. Parker, C.J. Kiely, G.J. Hutchings. Deactivation of a single-site gold-on-carbon acetylene hydrochlorination catalyst: An X-ray absorption and inelastic neutron scattering study. ACS Catalysis (2018), DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.8b02232

6. V. Celorrio , L. Calvillo , C.A.M. Van Den Bosch , G. Granozzi , A. Aguadero , A.E. Russell, D.J. Fermin. Mean intrinsic activity of single Mn sites at LaMnO3 nanoparticles towards the oxygen reduction reaction. ChemElectroChem (2018), DOI: 10.1002/celc.201800729

7. Y. Liu , A.J. Mccue , J. Feng , S. Guan , D. Li , J.A. Anderson. Evolution of palladium sulfide phases during thermal treatments and consequences for acetylene hydrogenation. Journal of Catalysis 364, 204 – 215

8. C. Genovese, M.E. Schuster, E.K. Gibson, D. Gianolio, V. Posligua, R. Grau-Crespo, G. Cibin, P. Wells, D. Garai, V. Solokha, S. Krick Calderon, J.J. Velasco-Velez, C. Ampelli, S. Perathoner, G. Held, G. Centi, R. Arrigo. Operando spectroscopy study of the carbon dioxide electro-reduction by iron species on nitrogen-doped carbon. Nature Communications (2018) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03138-7

9. S.M. Rogers, C. R.A. Catlow, D. Gianolio, P. Wells, N. Dimitratos. Supported Metal
Nanoparticles with Tailored Catalytic Properties through Sol immobilisation: Applications for the Hydrogenation of Nitrophenols. Faraday Discussions (2018) DOI: 10.1039/C7FD00216E

10. S. Guan, P.R. Davies, E.K. Gibson, D. Lennon, G.E. Rossi, J.M. Winfield, J. Callison, P.P Wells, D.J. Willock. Structural behaviour of copper chloride catalysts during the chlorination of CO to phosgene. Faraday Discussions (2018), DOI: 10.1039/C8FD00005K

  • Previous publications ▼

    11. H. Huang, A.B. Ahmed Amine Nassr, V. Celorrio, S.F.R. Taylor, V. Kumar Puthiyapura, C. Hardacre, D.J.L. Brett, A.E. Russell. Effects of heat treatment atmosphere on the structure and activity of Pt3Sn nanoparticle electrocatalysts: a characterisation case study. Faraday Discussions (2018) DOI: 10.1039/C7FD00221A.

    12. T. Parmentier, S.R Dawson, G. Malta, L. Lu, T.E. Davies, S.A. Kondrat, S.J. Freakley, C.J. Kiely, G.J. Hutchings. Homocoupling of Phenylboronic Acid using Atomically Dispersed Gold on Carbon Catalysts: Catalyst Evolution Before Reaction. ChemCatChem (2018), DOI:10.1002/cctc.201701840

    13. F. Goodarzi, L. Kang, F.R. Wang, F. Joensen, S. Kegnæs, J. Mielby. Methanation of CO2 over Zeolite-Encapsulated Nickel Nanoparticles. ChemCatChem (2018), DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201701946

    14. P. Hellier, P.P. Wells, D. Gianolio, M. Bowker. VOx/Fe2O3 Shell–Core Catalysts for the Selective Oxidation of Methanol to Formaldehyde. Topics in Catalysis (2018), DOI: 10.1007/s11244-017-0873-2

    15. L. Calvillo, L. Mendez De Leo, S.J. Thompson, S.W.T. Price, E.J. Calvo, A.E. Russell. In situ determination of the nanostructure effects on the activity, stability and selectivity of Pt-Sn ethanol oxidation catalysts. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (2018), DOI:10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.09.060

    16. V. Celorrio, L. Calvillo, G. Granozzi, A.E. Russell, D.J. Fermin. AMnO3 (A = Sr, La, Ca, Y) perovskite oxides as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts. Topics in Catalysis (2018), DOI: 10.1007/s11244-018-0886-5

    17. A. G. Greenaway, I. Lezcano-Gonzalez, M. Agote-Aran, E. K. Gibson, Y. Odarchenko, A. M. Beale. Operando spectroscopic studies of Cu-SSZ-13 for NH3-SCR deNOx investigates the role of NH3 in observed Cu(II) reduction at high NO conversions. Topics in Catalysis (2018), DOI:10.1007/s11244-018-0888-3

    18. A. G. Jarvis, L. Obrecht, P. J. Deuss, W. Laan, E. K. Gibson, P. Wells, P. Kamer. Enzyme activity by design: an artificial rhodium hydroformylase for linear aldehydes. Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2017), 56, 13596-13600

    19. A. Chutia, E. K. Gibson, M. R. Farrow, P. Wells, D. O. Scanlon, N. Dimitratos, D. J. Willock, C. R. A. Catlow. The adsorption of Cu on the CeO2(110) surface. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2017), 19, 27191-27203

    20. E.K. Dann, E.K. Gibson, R.A. Catlow, P. Collier, T.E. Erden, D. Gianolio, C. Hardacre, A. Kroner, A. Raj, A. Goguet, P. Wells. Combined in situ XAFS/DRIFTS Studies of the Evolution of Nanoparticle Structures from Molecular Precursors. Chemistry Of Materials (2017), 9, 7515-7523.

    21. E. K. Gibson , C. E. Stere , B. Curran-Mcateer , W. Jones , G. Cibin , D. Gianolio , A. Goguet , P. Wells , C. R. A. Catlow , P. Collier , P. Hinde , C. Hardacre. Probing the role of a non-thermal plasma (NTP) in the hybrid NTP-catalytic oxidation of CH4. Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2017), 56, 9351-9355.

    22. K. Y. Monakhov , J. Van Leusen , P. Kogerler , E.-l. Zins , M. E. Alikhani, M. Tromp , A. A. Danopoulos , P. Braunstein. Linear, Trinuclear Cobalt Complexes with o -Phenylene-bis-Silylamido Ligands. Chemistry – A European Journal (2017) 23, 6504-6508.

    23. G. Malta, S. A. Kondrat, S. J. Freakley, C. J. Davies, L. Lu, S. Dawson, A. Thetford, E. K. Gibson, D. J. Morgan, W. Jones, P. P. Well, P. Johnston, C. R. A. Catlow, C. J. Kiely, G. J. Hutchings. Identification of single site gold catalysis in acetylene hydrochlorination. Science (2017), 355, 1399- 1403

    24. E. K. Gibson, E. M. Crabb, D. Gianolio, A. E. Russell, D. Thompsett, P. P. Wells. Understanding the role of promoters in catalysis: operando XAFS/DRIFTS study of CeOx/Pt/Al2O3 during CO oxidation. Catalysis, Structure & Reactivity (2017) 3, 5

    25. S.M. Rogers, C. R. A. Catlow, C. E. Chan-thaw, A. Chutia, N. Jian, R. E. Palmer, M. Perdjon, A. Thetford, N. Dimitratos, A. Villa, P. Wells. Tandem Site and Size Controlled Pd Nanoparticles for the Directed Hydrogenation of Furfural. ACS Catal, (2017) 7, 2266

    26. A.A. Danopoulos, P. Braunstein, K.Y. Monakhov, J. van Leusen, P. Kögerler, M. Clémancey, J.-M. Latour, A. Benayad, M. Tromp, E. Rezabalh, G. Frison. Heteroleptic, two-coordinate [M(NHC){N(SiMe3)2}] (M = Co, Fe) complexes: synthesis, reactivity and magnetism rationalized by an unexpected metal oxidation state. Dalton Trans., 2017,46, 1163-1171

    27. M. E. Potter, J. M. Purkis, M. Perdjon, P. P. Wells, R. Raja. Understanding the molecular basis for the controlled design of ruthenium nanoparticles in microporous aluminophosphates. Mol. Syst. Des. Eng. (2016)1, 335

    28. V. Celorrio, L. Calvillo Lamana , E. Dann , G. Granozzi , A. Aguadero , D. Kramer , A. Russell, D. J. Fermín. Oxygen reduction reaction at LaxCa1-xMnO3 nanostructures: interplay between A-site segregation and B-site valency. Catal.Sci. Technol. (2016), 6, 7231

    29. C. Brookes, M. Bowker, P. P. Wells. Catalysts for the Selective Oxidation of Methanol. Catalysts, (2016) 6, 92

    30. S. Chapman, C. Brookes, M. Bowker, E. K. Gibson, P. P. Wells. Design and stabilisation of a high area iron molybdate surface for the selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Faraday Discussion, (2016) 188, 115-129

    31. H. Bahruji, M. Bowker, G. Hutchings, N. Dimitratos, P. Wells, E. Gibson, W. Jones, C. Brookes, D. Morgan, G. Lalev. Pd/ZnO catalysts for direct CO2 hydrogenation to methanol. J Catal, (2016) 343, 133.

    32. F. Wang, R. Büchel, A. Savitsky, M. Zalibera, D. Widmann, S. E. Pratsinis, W. Lubitz, F. Schüth. In Situ EPR Study of the Redox Properties of CuO−CeO2 Catalysts for Preferential CO Oxidation (PROX). ACS Catalysis, 2016, 6, 3520-3530

    33. M. Khaled, A. Chutia, J. Callison, P. P. Wells, E. Gibson, A. M. Beale, C. R. A. Catlow, R. Raja. Design and control of Lewis acid sites in Sn-substituted microporous architectures. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2016,4, 5706-5712

    34. L. Sandbrink, E. Klindtworth, H. U. Islam, A. M. Beale and R. Palkovits. ReOx/TiO2: A Recyclable Solid Catalyst for Deoxydehydration. ACS Catalysis, 2016, 6, 677-680.

    35. S. A. Kondrat, P. J. Smith, P. P. Wells, P. A. Chater, J. H. Carter, D. J. Morgan, E. M. Fiordaliso, J. B. Wagner, T. E. Davies, L. Lu, J. K. Bartley, S. H. Taylor, M. S. Spencer, C. J. Kiely, G. J. Kelly, C. W. Park, M. J. Rosseinsky, G. J. Hutchings. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a highactivity catalyst. Nature, 2016, 531, 83-87.

    36. E. N. K. Glover, S. G. Ellington, G. Sankar and R. G. Palgrave. The nature and effects of rhodium and antimony dopants on the electronic structure of TiO2: towards design of Z-scheme photocatalysts. J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016,4, 6946-6954

    37. A. M. Gill, C. S. Hinde, R. K. Leary, M. E. Potter, A. Jouve, P. P. Wells, P. A. Midgley, J. M. Thomas, R. Raja. Design of Highly Selective Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Aerobic Oxidation of KA-Oil using Continuous-Flow Chemistry. ChemSusChem, 2016, 9, 423-427.

    38. A. Al-Nayili, K. Yakabi, C. Hammond. Hierarchically porous BEA stannosilicates as unique catalysts for bulky ketone conversion and continuous operation. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2016, 4, 1373-1382.

    39. Q. Yang, W. Jones, P. P. Wells, D. Morgan, L. Dong, B. Hu, N. Dimitratos, M. Dong, M. Bowker, F. Besenbacher, R. Su, G. Hutchings. Exploring the mechanisms of metal co-catalysts in photocatalytic reduction reactions: Is Ag a good candidate?. Applied Catalysis A: General, 2016, 518, 213-220.

    40. C. Brookes, M. Bowker, E. K. Gibson, D. Gianolio, K. M. H. Mohammed, S. Parry, S. M. Rogers, I. P. Silverwood and P. P. Wells. In situ spectroscopic investigations of MoOx/Fe2O3 catalysts for the selective oxidation of methanol. Catalysis Science & Technology, 2016, 6, 722-730.

    41. G. J. Sherborne, M. R. Chapman, A. J. Blacker, R. A. Bourne, T. W. Chamberlain, B. D. Crossley, S. J. Lucas, P. C. McGowan, M. A. Newton, T. E. O. Screen, P. Thompson, C. E. Willans and B. N. Nguyen. Activation and Deactivation of a Robust Immobilized Cp*Ir-Transfer Hydrogenation Catalyst: A Multielement in Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 4151-4157.

    42. S. M. Rogers, C. R. A. Catlow, C. E. Chan-Thaw, D. Gianolio, E. K. Gibson, A. L. Gould, N. Jian, A. J. Logsdail, R. E. Palmer, L. Prati, N. Dimitratos, A. Villa and P. P. Wells. Tailoring Gold Nanoparticle Characteristics and the Impact on Aqueous-Phase Oxidation of Glycerol. ACS Catalysis, 2015, 5, 4377-4384.

    43. S. Iqbal, S. A. Kondrat, D. R. Jones, D. C. Schoenmakers, J. K. Edwards, L. Lu, B. R. Yeo, P. P. Wells, E. K. Gibson, D. J. Morgan, C. J. Kiely and G. J. Hutchings. Ruthenium Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon: An Active Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid to 1,2-Propanediol. ACS Catalysis, 2015, 5, 5047-5059.

    44. C. S. Hinde, A. M. Gill, P. P. Wells, T. S. A. Hor and R. Raja. Utilizing Benign Oxidants for Selective Aerobic Oxidations Using Heterogenized Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts. Chempluschem, 2015, 80, 1226

    45. C. S. Hinde, D. Ansovini, P. P. Wells, G. Collins, S. Van Aswegen, J. D. Holmes, T. S. A. Hor and R. Raja. Elucidating Structure–Property Relationships in the Design of Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Activation of Molecular Oxygen. ACS Catalysis, 2015, 5, 3807-3816

    46. C. Hammond, D. Padovan, A. Al-Nayili, P. P. Wells, E. K. Gibson and N. Dimitratos. Identification of Active and Spectator Sn Sites in Sn-β Following Solid-State Stannation, and Consequences for Lewis Acid Catalysis. Chemcatchem, 2015, 7, 3322-3331.

    47. E. K. Gibson, A. M. Beale, C. R. A. Catlow, A. Chutia, D. Gianolio, A. Gould, A. Kroner, K. M. H. Mohammed, M. Perdjon, S. M. Rogers and P. P. Wells. Restructuring of AuPd Nanoparticles Studied by a Combined XAFS/DRIFTS Approach. Chemistry of Materials, 2015, 27, 3714-3720.

    48. J.-C. Buffet, N. Wanna, T. A. Q. Arnold, E. K. Gibson, P. P. Wells, Q. Wang, J. Tantirungrotechai and D. O’Hare. Highly Tunable Catalyst Supports for Single-Site Ethylene Polymerization. Chemistry of Materials, 2015, 27, 1495-1501.

    49. N. J. Brown, A. Garcia-Trenco, J. Weiner, E. R. White, M. Allinson, Y. Chen, P. P. Wells, E. K. Gibson, K. Hellgardt, M. S. P. Shaffer and C. K. Williams. From Organometallic Zinc and Copper Complexes to Highly Active Colloidal Catalysts for the Conversion of CO2 to Methanol. ACS Catalysis, 2015, 5, 2895-2902.

    50. A. M. Beale, I. Lezcano-Gonzalez, T. Maunula and R. G. Palgrave. Development and
    characterization of thermally stable supported V–W–TiO2 catalysts for mobile NH3–SCR
    applications. Catalysis, Structure & Reactivity, 2015, 1, 25-34.

    51. M. Bowker, M. House, A. Alshehri1, C. Brookes, E.K. Gibson, P.P. Wells. Selectivity determinants for dual function catalysts: applied to methanol selective oxidation on iron molybdate. Catal. Struct. React., 2015, 1, 95-100

    52. W. Jones, R. Su, P. P. Wells, Y. Shen, N. Dimitratos, M. Bowker, D. Morgan, B. B. Iversen, A. Chutia, F. Besenbacher, G. Hutchings. Optimised photocatalytic hydrogen production using core– shell AuPd promoters with controlled shell thickness. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2014, 16, 26638-26644.

    53. M. M. Forde, R. D. Armstrong, R. McVicker, P. P. Wells, N. Dimitratos, Q. He, L. Lu, R. L. Jenkins, C. Hammond, J. A. Lopez-Sanchez, C. J. Kiely, G. J. Hutchings. Light alkane oxidation using catalysts prepared by chemical vapour impregnation: tuning alcohol selectivity through catalyst pretreatment. Chemical Science, 2014, 5, 3603-3616.

    54. C. Brookes, P. P. Wells, N. Dimitratos, W. Jones, E. K. Gibson, D. J. Morgan, G. Cibin, C. Nicklin, D. Mora-Fonz, D. O. Scanlon, C. R. A. Catlow, M. Bowker. The Nature of the Molybdenum Surface in Iron Molybdate. The Active Phase in Selective Methanol Oxidation. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2014, 118, 26155-26161.

    55. C. Brookes, P. P. Wells, G. Cibin, N. Dimitratos, W. Jones, D. J. Morgan and M. Bowker. Molybdenum Oxide on Fe2O3 Core–Shell Catalysts: Probing the Nature of the Structural Motifs Responsible for Methanol Oxidation Catalysis. ACS Catalysis, 2014, 4, 243-250.

    56. D. S. Bhachu, S. Sathasivam, G. Sankar, D. O. Scanlon, G. Cibin, C. J. Carmalt, I. P. Parkin, G. W. Watson, S. M. Bawaked, A. Y. Obaid, S. Al-Thabaiti and S. N. Basahel. Solution Processing Route to Multifunctional Titania Thin Films: Highly Conductive and Photcatalytically Active Nb:TiO2. Advanced Functional Materials, 2014, 24, 5075-5085.


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